Numerous technologies and patents cover debondable structural adhesives. For your small parts, however, I can suggest a few simple alternatives.
Several low-strength adhesive systems might be suitable. Many hot melts, for example, will give decent bond strengths but can then be broken apart with a sharp impact or by heating. A pressure-sensitive adhesive or double-sided pressure-sensitive tape might also work.
Silicones will bond to these surfaces but have fairly low tensile and tensile shear strengths. An interesting alternative might be to try a solvent-based neoprene cement. While typically sold as an automotive trim and detail adhesive, it is also used to bond wheel nuts to wheels for rapid tire changes in auto racing like NASCAR. It is a fairly strong and tough adhesive, but the torque from the wheel wrench breaks the bond instantly when the wheels are put on the car.
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